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Geology Center - Metamorphic Rocks


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دوشنبه یازدهم دی 1391 :: نویسنده : مجید

Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure and chemical process usually while buried deep below Earth's surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of the rocks. There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks:

1) foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure; and,

2) non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite which do not have a layered or banded appearance.Brief descriptions of some common types of metamorphic rocks are provided below.

Amphibolite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that forms through recrystallization under conditions of high viscosity and directed pressure. It is composed primarily of amphibole and plagioclase, usually with very little quartz. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made up of granular mineral grains. It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar minerals. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Hornfels is a fine-grained nonfoliated metamorphic rock with no specific composition. It is produced by contact metamorphism. Hornfels is a rock that was "baked" while near a heat source such as a magma chamber, sill or dike. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone. It is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Phyllite is a foliate metamorphic rock that is made up mainly of very fine-grained mica. The surface of phyllite is typically lustrous and sometimes wrinkled. It is intermediate in grade between slate and schist. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters across).

Quartzite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced by the metamorphism of sandstone. It is composed primarily of quartz. The specimen above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Schist is metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin pieces. It is a rock of intermediate metamorphic grade between phyllite and gneiss. The specimen shown above is a "chlorite schist" because it contains a significant amount of chlorite. It is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Schist is metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin pieces. It is a rock of intermediate metamorphic grade between phyllite and gneiss. The specimen shown above is a "garnet schist" because it contains a significant amount of garnet. The small crystals visible in the rock are small red garnets. It is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Schist is metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin pieces. It is a rock of intermediate metamorphic grade between phyllite and gneiss. The specimen shown above is a "muscovite schist" because it contains a significant amount of muscovite mica. It is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Slate is a foliated metamorphic rock that is formed through the metamorphism of shale. It is a low grade metamorphic rock that splits into thin pieces. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.





نوع مطلب : مقالات انگلیسی، 
برچسب ها : Metamorphic Rocks، سنگ های دگرگونی، لیست سنگ های دگرگونی، چه سنگ هایی دگرگونی هستند؟، مقاله های انگلیسی،
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